Canada is one of the biggest nations in the world and the biggest in the western hemisphere. Canada, a country in northern North America, stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Its citizens live in a community with a good level of living and a stable administration. The nation is resource-rich and has an advanced transportation network. The federal capital of Canada is Ottawa, and English and French are its official languages. Ten provinces and three territories make up this parliamentary democracy. The Canadian dollar is the official currency (CAD).

Canada is one of the least populous nations in the world despite its size. The Dublin-born author Anna Brownell Jameson, who traveled through central Ontario in 1837, exultedly about “the seemingly interminable line of trees before you; the boundless wilderness around you; the mysterious depths amid the multitudinous foliage, where foot of man hath never penetrated…the solitude in which we proceeded mile after mile, has been central to the sense of Canadian national identity.Despite their relative rarity, Canadians have created what many outsiders view as a model multicultural society by embracing immigrant communities from every continent. Canada also has access to and exports a richness of natural resources and intellectual capital that is unmatched by many other nations.


New Zealand

The richness and stark contrasts of New Zealand are remarkable. The scenic splendor of New Zealand is influenced by active volcanoes, breathtaking caverns, deep glacial lakes, lush valleys, stunning fjords, long sandy beaches, and the magnificent snowcapped peaks of the Southern Alps/K Tiritiri o te Moana in the South Island. New Zealand also features a distinctive variety of plants and animals, a lot of which emerged during the nation’s protracted isolation. For instance, the long-beaked, flightless kiwi, a common moniker for New Zealanders, has no other place to call home.

When it was acquired by Great Britain in 1840, New Zealand was the biggest nation in Polynesia. Following then, it was a dominion, a self-governing colony (1856), and a royal colony (1907). The majority of its internal and exterior policies were under its authority by the 1920s, but it didn’t achieve complete independence until 1947, when it ratified the Statute of Westminster. It belongs to the Commonwealth.


The United Kingdom, usually known as the U.K., is made up of a collection of islands off the coast of Europe’s northwest. England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are a few of these.
Four different nations make up this unusual country: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Great Britain is made up of Scotland, Wales, and England.

High land, knife-edged mountain ridges, and deep valleys cover a large portion of the northern and western parts of the United Kingdom. The last Ice Age, when the area was covered by massive glaciers, formed this topography.

The majority of the landscape in the south of England consists of undulating hills.

Numerous lakes, or lochs, may be found in the Scottish Highlands and northwest England. When the Ice Age glaciers melted, they were left behind. They frequently have a long, thin shape, and some are rather deep. Legend has it that Scotland’s Loch Ness is home to a gigantic creature known as Nessie.


The United States, sometimes known as the United States of America, commonly referred to as America, is a federal republic with 50 states in North America. The 48 contiguous states that are located in the central latitudes of the continent are joined by Hawaii, an island state in the center of the Pacific Ocean, and Alaska, a state at the far western end of North America. The conterminous states are encircled by Canada to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The United States is the world’s fourth-largest country by area (after Russia, Canada, and China).Washington, which includes the District of Columbia, the federal capital region established in 1790, serves as the nation’s capital.

The United States’ greatest strength is likely its enormous variety. Its physical habitat spans the Arctic and the subtropics, a lush rain forest and a parched desert, and a rough mountain top and a flat plain. Despite having a sizable overall population by global standards, the United States has a comparatively low population density. The nation has some of the largest metropolitan regions in the globe as well as some of the largest landscapes that are nearly entirely free of human settlement.

By gross domestic product, the United States is the world’s most powerful economy (GDP). The country’s prosperity may be attributed in part to its abundant natural resources and massive agricultural production, but it owes more to its highly developed industry. The United States is the most significant individual element in international commerce due to the sheer size of its economy, despite its relative economic self-sufficiency in many areas. Major sections of the global total are represented by its imports and exports. Additionally, the United States has an impact on the world economy by serving as both a source and a destination for investment money.The nation nonetheless maintains one of the most diverse economies on Earth, giving the majority of its citizens access to one of the greatest levels of living.


Australia has one of the world’s best performing economies, a highly trained labor force, and is a stable, democratic country with a diversified population.

Australia is a place unlike any other, with stunning natural beauty and a vibrant old culture. It is the only country in the world to rule over a whole continent, and it has the sixth-largest geographical area on the planet.

An accurate account of Australia’s history, geography, people, and way of life is provided in Australia in Brief. It also examines Australia’s successes in the fields of business, science, and culture as well as its foreign, trade, and defense policy.

Australia in Brief is now on its 52nd edition, which was updated and rewritten in February 2021. The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade appreciates the support of other government departments and agencies as well as several commercial companies that have obtained permission to utilize images and graphics. Except as otherwise noted, all financial values are reported in Australian dollars. Both metric and imperial weights and measurements are used.